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Contemporary Gender Issues and Deafness 


Famous Deaf Women  

Organizations of Deaf Women  



Objective: This page is devoted to career issues facing women who are deaf/hard of hearing.




Career Name




Courtesy of Global Deaf Women

“Global Deaf Women works with female entrepreneurs who are gaining confidence, living their passion, achieving their vision and financial prosperity.” (Global Deaf Woman, 2013).  Global Deaf Women (GDW) provides business coaching for Deaf women who want to start their careers and build their own business.  This organization provides support and tools in order to gain business growth. The Dream Big, Get Paid Program will assist Deaf women in finding what they are passionate about and how to gain financial prosperity with professional support and a network of people who all use ASL. The support, recognitions and networking assist Deaf women in pursuing their dreams.  GDW was established in May 2008, founded by Sofia Seitchik.  Sofia wants Deaf women to make their business dreams a reality and have a sense of passion and confidence. In addition to business coaching and networking it also supports individuals in developing their skills and hosts a Power of Me retreat.  This retreat is focused on female entrepreneurs.  The retreat provides insight and knowledge about skills needed to start your own business and it provides networking for personal and professional growth.


Global Deaf Women. (2013). Retrieved from http://globaldeafwomen.com/

Posted By: B. Foster





Gallaudet Leadership Program Boosts Career Opportunities  


Gallaudet Leadership Institute (GLI) partnered with the organization Deaf Women United (DWU) to produce a Deaf Women’s Leadership Program at Gallaudet University.  This program develops the participant’s relationship with a mentor that urges successful life and career goals. During the program the participants “…discussed leadership styles and strategies…” to achieve their set goals (Program empowers deaf," 2013).   This leadership program aides the participants to realize their strengths and weaknesses in their work ethics and leadership skills; once know their self-esteem and self-confidence can be boosted so that the women can feel comfortable in a work environment.  This program focuses on “…leadership styles, networking, fundraising, community development” and teaches the ladies how to balance their lives while being a part of both the Deaf and hearing community (Program empowers deaf," 2013).  This program will help deaf women break through the stereotypical careers and pursue their dream jobs.   




Program empowers deaf women. (2013). Retrieved from


Posted By S. Covert






Can Do Careers  


The President of Gallaudet University, I. King Jordan, gave a presentation in front of the student body at Gallaudet in order to persuade them to persue careers that students may not have thought they had the skills to do. 

   Jordan opened his presentation by saying "Deaf people are often told they can not do certain jobs," then continued to counter this idea by providing information on numerous career paths geared towards women, as well as careers that were geared toward men. 

Among these careers were; Lawyer, Doctor, even Miss America. 

Terri Mosier is a Deaf lawyer who practices law in Kentucky. She is a personal rights lawyer who defends people with disabilities.

Angela Earhart is a Doctor in Rochester, NY who uses an interpreter to communicate with her patients.

Heather Whitestone, a Deaf woman, was crowned Miss America in 1995.  

Posted By J. Whipple Jessica Whipple










Tia Albert is a professional third generation beautician. She is the owner of three spas in Los Angeles and has worked in many types of aspects of the entertainment industry. Among those aspects includes working for commercials, music videos, television, films, print, editorial, and is currently the mobile spa owner of SKIN. Her skills include working with make-up, hair styling, holistic and medical skin care and lash extensions. She graduated form the Fashion Institute of Design and Merchandising. She was recognized by “The Pearls,” an organization established by Oprah, as an extraordinary deaf women in her respective field.  

Resources Albert, T. (2011, July 08). About. Retrieved from http://www.skinbytia.com/?page_id=166 
Posted By: Diana Cruz







Associate Director in the White House of


Public Engagement: Claudia Gordon

Growing up in Jamaica,Claudia Gordon dealt with discrimination due to her Deafness and many people viewed it as an obstacle that wouldn't allow her to be successful. However, her family moved to the U.S. in order for Gordon to get the help she needed, where she attended New York's Lexington School for the Deaf and was the first deaf student to graduate from American University's Washington College of Law where she would pursue her dream of becoming an attorney. She knew that she wanted to be involved in a career that would allow her to make a difference in our society that will better understand people with disabilities and grant them equal opportunity which resulted in her contribution in the federal government.

 Claudia Gordon moved from the Department of Labor, where she dealt with discrimination by federal contractors in Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs, to Obama's administration and the disability community in the White House as the Director of Public Engagement. Here she ensures that the views of ordinary American citizens are heard in the Administration.

Resources Retrieved from http://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2010/08/30/meet-women-administration-claudia-gordon
Posted By Jacqueline Najera







 Deaf Deputy Susie Cambre


Susie Cambre was told time and time again that she could never work in law enforcement because of her deafness, but she proved everyone wrong. Deputy Susie has worked in law enforcement for the last 30 years. Before becoming an officer though, she was a strong advocate for the deaf and hard of hearing and won many awards for her services. She struggled for years for the opportunity to become a police officer to fight for equality of deaf people. Cambre realized that deaf people do not have the same opportunities to call for help as hearing people do after surviving a break in and realizing that she could not call 911 for help. What would a deaf person do if there was an intruder in their home? They could not simply call for help. So she decided to become a police officer and change those issues. Cambre mostly works with children and the elderly and teaches them how to contact the police effectively. Odd that a deaf woman is teaching communication. She recently signed a contract with Disney to make a movie and a book in honor of her life, but she said that it can wait. After she signed the contract with Disney she decided that she did not want her movie to be made right away. She stated that she is afraid that if a movie and a book are published about her life, the rest of her life would be an anti-climax. "I have too much left to do!" she said.  


Lippman , David . "Deaf Sheriff's Deputy Inspires Through Determination." Fox 44 [Baton Rouge ] 13 September 2013 , n. pag. Web. 15 Nov. 2013. <http://www.fox44.com/news/deaf-sheriffs-deputy-inspires-through-determination-character>.

Posted By Jessica Welter  









A study conducted by Clarity and The EAR Foundation confirmed the prevalence of hearing loss among Baby Boomers and its negative impact on performance and productivity on the job. Hearing los among Baby Boomers has increased to approximately 50 percent of people aged 45-64. Hearing loss affects job performance, which results in lower salaries and leads to less retirement income and investment saving. The areas that workers face problems in are hearing and understanding phone calls and being able to have conversations with co-workers. Access to technology like amplified telephones and other assistive learning devices could improve the employees’ productivity and ultimately their success. The use of hearing aids could restore lost income by 50 percent. “Clarity is a leading supplier of amplified telephones, notification systems, assistive listening devices and other communication devices for the hearing loss and deaf markets.” The company began in 1969 as a telecommunications manufacturer.


(2007, October). Retrieved from http://www.hearinglossweb.com/Issues/Employment/earn.htm

Picture from: founderfuel.com

Posted By

Mary Stegall








Strategies To Empower People (STEP) 


Strategies To Empower People, STEP, is a diverse community that appreciates and respects many cultures coming together as one. STEP has supportive programs for Deaf and Deaf/Blind individuals.  STEP focuses on using total communication, which involves formal signs, natural gestures, fingerspelling, body language, listening, lip-reading and speech.” They help a variety of people with disabilities, among those being Cerebral Palsy (CP). They employ many Deaf people in Northern California and support the use of sign and make sure there are “fluent signers who are apart of Deaf culture.” STEP was created to help individuals transitioning to independent living by providing them an individual that signs so they can communicate effectively. It is a helpful service that provides resources to those with disabilities.


S.T.E.P. Employment Opportunities - Deaf Culture. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://stepagency.com/employment/deafculture.html

Hands & Voices. Hands & Voices :: Communication Considerations. Retrieved from http://www.handsandvoices.org/comcon/articles/totalcom.htm


Posted By Alexis S.








Jackie Roth- Actress and Producer 

Jackie Roth was born as a deaf woman in New York City. She was the third generation of deafness in her family. Her father is deaf but the genes were passed down from her mother side of the family. As she grew up, Roth realized that she loved being on stage and performing in front of an audience. After she graduated, Roth became involved in the Broadway show, “Children of a Lesser God”. The Broadway show was a success and even won a Tony award. Roth had the opportunity to go on tour for the Broadway show but as an understudy. She wasn’t sure at first but then decided that the opportunity to learn what she needs to know for acting. Roth then wrote a screen play called “Sound and Fury”. Roth looked for many production companies and finally got a chance to produce it and was the main producer herself. The main difficulty that Roth has to face as being a deaf actress was only being allowed being “deaf roles”. She wanted much more opportunities to play other roles. Jackie Roth is happy with her success for far and wants to continue in her career and encourages other deaf women who wants to be an actress to also pursue it with passion.


Dameron, J. (2011 April, 5). Deaf Women in Film.

Retrieved from: http://dwif.blogspot.com/2011/04/official-deaf-women-in-film-interview.html

Posted By Beena Thomas






Deaf Hopsice Education and Volunteer Project (DHEP) 

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   The Deaf Hospice Education and Volunteer Project is a project that conferences every year to help educate and empower deaf people within their community. They do this by helping and educating deaf minorities on health care. The main focus of this project is to educate and devolop deaf leaders of their communites. The co-director of this project is one of the first Deaf Health Care workers in the country. All of the individuals working on this project rely heavily on ASL and are of a distinct ethnic minority. They like to stay enthusiastic about their goals by honoring the "Deaf way" as one of their keys to success. The project has three main objectives:


1. To educate and provide and produce materials on ASL.


2. To train deaf people to be hospice volunteers and program leaders. 


3. To increase cultural ability of the hospice staff and health professional through many educational workshops and being face to face with deaf people.


   With this project Deaf people will have all the necessary skills that they will need to use in their community. They will now have the opportunity to care for other members in health care setting. One of the main concerns still is the lack of literature. The lack of research and health related literature about the deaf populatons on health care wether it be different attitudes, health behaviors and points of view may be the reason a lot is still unknown. One reason could be because of the small number of Deaf and Hard of hearing physicians. The program has decided to overcome the lack of research and funding by reaching the community and making this program. This program is still in the works, there is alot to be familiar with. Research is still going underway as well as more ASL literature.


Integrating cultural sensitivity into palliative and end of life care . Retrieved March 7, 2009, from The Deaf Hospice Education & Volunteer Project (DHEP) Web site: http://www.diversityrxconference.org/

Posted By:

April 13, 2009 

Raquel Mendoza  










Deaf Women in Science





Picure Courtsey of www.deafwise.org

  Deaf Women in Science and Engineering was founded in 2001 in Washington DC. This organization was formed to unify deaf women, and to create a place for like-minded deaf women to go. The organizations objectives is to enhance career development and provide resources for deaf and hard of hearing women in the science and engineering fields, promote networking, encourage other school age and college age girls to join these fields and this organization, also they form a sense of community and support for deaf women in professional field dominate by men.  This website is used to notify members of up and coming events, recruit new members or supporters of the organization, and to give recognition to deaf women that have triumphed in their field. The website also gives some statistics about deaf women in these fields: 84% of deaf women are happy in their chosen field, 78% network between others in their field, 57% experienced some kind of barrier in communication or in job advancement, and 71% are the only ones in their field of specialty. This is a great organization to support deaf women in science and engineering.

Resources: Deaf Women in Science and Engineering.(2005). Retrieved on March 24, 2009 from, www.deafwise.org
Posted By:

Margie Peavy

March 24, 2009










Fear in the Tellin': The Silence, Suffering, and Survival of Deaf Professional Women by Kathleen J. Grant


    Kathleen J. Grant is a deaf woman who writes her dissertation on Deaf Professional Women (DPW) and researches the issues these women face at the workplace. Grant uses qualitative methodology as she interviews twenty-eight deaf women from thirty-three states over the course of three years. She logs in over 168 hours of interviews and covers a broad range of problems and stigmas that DPW experiences in the workplace. Grant's research includes the topics of oppressions, communication (American Sign Language), gender, sexual orientation, race, and ethnicity. Grant also goes over the many gateways and doors that are closed to deaf women due to being Deaf and a woman. From 2003 to 2006, Grant focused her study on "language, practices, categories, rules, beliefs, and social organizations." (Grant)

    Grant's dissertation was extremely enlightening as she delved into the discriminations that the twenty-eight Deaf women experience whe the women step out of the Deaf Community to pursue a career.


Grant, Kathleen J. (2007).  Fear in the tellin': The silence, suffering, and survival of deaf professional women. Ph.D. dissertation, The American University, United States -- District of Columbia. Retrieved April 9, 2009, from Dissertations & Theses: Full Text database. (Publication No. AAT 3273594).

Posted By:

Tamara Rodriguez

April 9, 2009




Deaf Women Artists 


Picture from website 


This website has over 40 deaf and hard of hearing artist work that captures film, paper canvas, wood, sculptures, paintings, pictures, etc.  The deaf women artists range from the world of renowned artists to women who just love to express themselves through art. Most of the women found on the website for Rochester Institute of Technology became deaf at early ages and are expressing themselves by using this website to expose their talent and careers as artisticly deaf women. Other websites include creative art designed by deaf women such as deafart.com. On this particular website nine women from around the U.S. are explicitely pointed out. Through their work, each personality is diplayed as well as their knowledge of the world as they see it. Some of the women seem to relate more to the deaf community than others with their work focusing on the deaf iondividual as a whole. Others simply engage in what they personally are interested in like nature, jewels, etc.  



Deaf Art/Deaf Artists. Retrieved November 13, 2008 from National Technical Institute for the Deaf Web site: http://www.rit.edu/ntid/dccs/dada/dada.htm


Kushner, Lesley (1999, March 27). Works by Deaf Women: A Group Exhibition of Nine Artists. Retrieved February 26, 2009, Web site: http://www.deafart.org/Past_Exhibits/Works_by_Deaf_Women/works_by_deaf_women.html

Posted By:

Lanita Matthews-November 13, 2008,

Steffany Ellsworth-February 26, 2009




Work by Deaf Women





Ceres Gallery presented a wonderful piece of art named, “Works by Deaf Women”.  It is a combination of paintings, sculptures, and photographs of deaf women’s masterpieces.  These women are from all around the United States and Canada. The art that was presented by these ladies reflects the deaf community. Janet Adams forms paper into art. Irene Bartok’s and Claire Bergman photograph’s show beautiful colors with shapes of nature all around them.  Susan Duroper gets her inspiration from both the deaf world and the hearing world.   She was brought up with hearing parents and thinks of American Sign Language as an art form. Lesley Kushner’s sculptures involve many items such as: jewels, fabrics, and some flower-patterns. Mary J. Thorley is one of the women that influenced Ceres gallery with her paintings. Her goal is to have many pieces that represent deaf art. She is currently an artist at Gallaudet University. All of these ladies and many more have come together to show off their work. Many of them consider art as their career, with their inspirations coming from deaf experiences and from the local community. These different works of art help try to teach others about the hardships in the deaf community.


Works by Deaf Women.(1999). November 4, 2008. http://www.deafart.org/Past_Exhibits/Works_by_Deaf_Women/works_by_deaf_women.htm

Thornley, M.(2002). November 4,2008. http://www.deafart.org/Biographies/Mary_J__Thornley/mary_j__thornley.html

                                  Posted By:

Jamie Smith

November 12, 2008

Rebeka Bock

February 8, 2009





National Deaf Business Institute 




Photo courtesy of: http://www.ndbi.org/ndbiorg/index.php

This is a non-profit organization that was founded to help deaf individuals obtain skills needed to start, manage and operate a business or organization. The institute was founded in July 2001. It offers programs for yound deaf individuals as well as deaf professionals. The NDBI offers a directory of Deaf professionals to help with the finding of a mentor for new entreprenuers.  The NDBI's Mission is to advance entreprenuership by deaf people through education, research and outreach. The vision of the NDBI is to build economic power amoung deaf individuals by aiding in the increase of business prductivity. The NBDI Credo is:

M- Mentorship






 National Deaf Business Institute, Retrieved on April 14, 2009 from http://www.ndbi.org/ndbiorg/index.php

Posted By:

Christen Cochrane

April 14, 2009


Ashley Proffitt

March 31, 2008




Deaf Women as Social Workers



Picture by:  


In this field women have to acquire knowledge and skills to work with individuals, families, groups, organizations, and communities. They will also need to be able to work with the deaf culture and the diversity among people. Social Workers also need to be able communicate and work with interpreters that they will encounter along the way. They will also need to realize that they will not be working with just one disability but with several disabilities and will need to be able to know how to handle things and how that person works in everyday life.


Social worker also will be up to date with the laws that pertain to a certain group, for example the Americans with Disability Act and organizations that the deaf individuals might find useful when they need help. Gallaudet University has a Department of Social Work and offers Bachelors in Social Work and a Masters in Social Work. The department helps develop skills to be able to interact with children, adolescents and adults. "Deaf people can do anything, except hearing." I. King Jordan President of Gallaudet University said. I love this phrase because I find it so true. All deaf people can definitely work even if they cannot hear.



Gallaudet University, (2007). Department of Social Work. Retrieved March 31, 2008, from Gallaudet University Web site: http://socialwork.galladuet.edu/


Posted By:

Julie Garcia

Eve Ta

February 21, 2009 




Deaf Woman As Audiologist



Picture retrieved from: http://www.canterbury.ac.nz/profiles/postgrads/mackenzie.shtml

Melanie  MacKenzie has a profound Bilateral hearing loss and is studying for a Masters in Audiology at Canterbury University, located in New Zealand. She has also completed a Bachlors of Arts in Anthropology and English at Otago University before going for her Masters. She was awarded National Foundation for the Deaf Quest for Excellence Scholarship in 2007 because the executive manager of the foundation thought she was a good representative for the other 450,000 people in New Zealand with a hearing loss.  At the age of 13, she became hard of hearing and had to be fitted for a hearing aid. Getting fitted for a hearing aid was the worst experience for her. She said there was a stigma associated with it. For the next ten years, her hearing got worse during high school and college. While working with individuals that were disabled, she decided to become an audiologist. She would face challenges such as performing listening tests and doing checks on hearing equipment. Soon, she lost all of her hearing and had to have cochlear implant surgery. She said that it was not a "cure," but that she could hear much better. When she needed her peace, she would just take the hearing processor off. Even though she's been through moderate to severe hearing loss, she has endured many obstacles, and has achieved her goals.


Wilson, A (2007). The SouthLand Times: Audiologist goal for deaf student Tapanui woman studies for masters. Retrieved April 3, 2008, Web Site: http://www.stuff.co.nz/stuff/southlandtimes/4338118a6568.html


UC Web Team, Graduate and student profiles: Melanie Mackenzie. Retrieved April 8,2009, from University of Canterbury Web Site:


Posted By:

Tanganyika Tramble

April 3, 2008

Symantha McClurg

April 8, 2009




Deaf Women's Leadership Positions


Individual Perceptions, Organizational Dynamics, and Career Mobility Of Deaf Women In Academe Leadership Positions is the work of Sally Martin Baynton, where she explores the leadership positions available for deaf women in the United States. Among many other things, her study found out the following:


(c) early career counseling is crucial deaf women to advance in leadership positions; (f) hearing people are not the sole change agents for the deaf; (g) deaf women’s experiences in post-secondary education organizational leadership is one of non-equitable career progression, and (h) deaf women are considered a risk and/or a liability to organizations. (Baynton, 2005)


This study focused on “factors that might be organizational or individual barriers for deaf women seeking leadership positions in academe” (Baynton, 2005). Baynton also states that “for many past generations, normal-hearing and well-intentioned vocational advisors, educational instructors, and guidance counselors advocated, if not inculcated, the premise that job openings, career fields, and life options of deaf individuals were negligible, limited, and predestined”(p. 1). It has been demonstrated that deaf women barely get leadership positions in post-secondary educational organizations, and when they do they are not completely “interwoven into the pattern of post-secondary educational organizational life” (p. 3). She also mentioned that popular belief encourages deaf individuals to work only with other deaf people (Baynton, 2005).

According to Baynton, reports from the “United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (1995) divulged that 6.8% of deaf federal employees have reached professional levels”(p. 56). She also presented a table from the investigations of Watson and Schroedel (2000) stating that the annual income from deaf professionals was lower than their hearing counter parts. The table is the following:


Annual Earnings of Deaf AlumniRelative earnings of Deaf and Hard-of-hearing IndividualsDeaf Professional Women**

Hearing Graduates and Remuneration Deaf Graduates and Remuneration

Associate-$31,700 Associate-$25,000-29,999

Bachelor-$40,100 Bachelor-$30,000-34,999

Master - $50,000 Master-$35,000-40,000

Besides from being paid less than hearing professionals, deaf women also fall behind deaf men, which in 1998 earned between 10,000 more than deaf women (Baynton, 57).

Reference: Baynton, Sally Martin (2005). Individual perceptions, organizational dynamics, and career mobility of deaf women in academe leadership positions. D.M. dissertation, University of Phoenix, United States -- Arizona. Retrieved April 3, 2008, from ProQuest Digital Dissertations database. (Publication No. AAT 3243734).
Posted by:

Ericka Castillo

April 2, 2008



Relative Earnings of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Individuals


picture courtesy of 



In an article about the salaries between deaf and hard of hearing indviduals compared to hearing indviduals there really wasnt much differences between college educated women and the general population (hearing women). The article also gave the differences between Deaf and hard of hearing men and the general population (hearing men).


The National Health Survey (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1994) reports that there is no significant difference of salaries earned between deaf women and hearing women.  The study was conduted using 240 people with 71% identifying themselves and deaf and 29% identifying themselves as hard of hearing. The table in the article shows the differences between the deaf and hard of hearing women against the hearing women.


As one can see, Deaf or hard of hearing women earned an average of $25,178 yearly while hearing women earned between $21,290 and 27,415. These reports concluded that the only difference between salaries is the level of education.


Overall,  the higher your education level, the higher your salary is going to be whether your deaf or hearing. Hearing women who had bachlor's degrees made more than deaf women who had associate's degrees and vice versa. This survey goes to show that education is vital for everyone to succeed in life.





Jones, D. (2004). Relative earnings of Deaf and Hard-of-hearing Individuals. Economic Consulting Services. Retrieved April 4, 2009 from http://jdsde.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/9/4/459

Posted By:

Amanda Malaney  April 3, 2008  &

Shontanise Neal April 4, 2009









The Prejudices Deaf Women Face in Their Careers


Women in the workplace are at an extreme disadvantage. Even with all of the changes women have made to shatter the inequality at work; it is still present at all levels of many professions. When you add another reason for people to discriminate, you undoubtedly are facing an uphill battle. This is very evident when talking to DPW (deaf professional women). Now when a woman walks into the business world not only is her gender, sexual orientation, and race being considered and in most cases judged, her hearing or lack of hearing is as well. When studying DPW though, it is evident that they have worked out many ways of coping with the discrimination that they deal with on a daily basis. This makes it extremely hard for deaf professional women to raise their status in the workplace. They often have to work twice as hard as other people in their offices to get noticed at all. Since employers may have it in their minds that the deafness these women face is impossible to overcome.







Grant, Kathleen J. & The American U., US. (2008). Dissertation Abstracts International. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol 68. (7-A)pp.3004.

Posted By:


Edited By:

 Jaclyn Lester  October 10, 2008


 Colleen Smith April 5, 2009





 Long-Term Career Attainments of Deaf and Hard of Hearing College Graduates



Results of a national survey of 240 college graduates with hearing loss. These results confirmed that economic benefits resulted from these alumni's postsecondary training. Most respondents were relatively successfully employed and pleased with their life. Over time, increasing numbers had completed higher degrees and secured white-collar positions. Between 1988 and 1998, men in the study sample made more dependable earnings gains than their female counterparts. Larger proportions of deaf alumni had earned advanced degrees and secured white-collar jobs than hard of hearing alumni. Deaf alumni also earned more. Results also showed that, recipients of associate's degrees earned more than recipients of bachelor's degrees. Recommendations were made on how to improve career decision making by deaf and hard of hearing adolescents, improve the career potential of deaf and hard of hearing women, and increase the productivity of workers with hearing loss as a whole




SchrodelL John G, (200). Long-term career attainments of deaf and hard of hearing college graduates :

     Results from a 15-year follow-up survey. American annals of the deaf, 145(3), 303-314


 Posted By Ashley Butters

October 22, 2008



 Deaf Women: Workplace Discrimination and Underemployment






Bachelder, L., & Braddock, D. (1994). The glass ceiling and persons with disabilities. Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1115&context=key_workplace



Barnes, C., & Roulstone, A. Working futures? Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=0eLxkJW_7ywC&pg=PT1&dq=working+future%3F+barnes+roulstone#PPP1,M1



Finch J. R., Moxley, D. P., & Pray, J. L. Sourcebook of rehabilitation and mental health practice. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=8va_XyGuD1gC&printsec=frontcover&dq=source+book+of+rehabilitation+and+mental+health+practice#PPP1,M1


Posted by: Rachel Bennos

October 25, 2008



Employment of Deaf Women  
In 1992, MacLeod-Gallinger conducted a study comparing the employment status of 4,917 deaf high school graduateds to national data in the United States. When the findings were revealed, it was shown deaf women had a higher rate of unemployment compared with their male counterparts. In addition, deaf employees frequently worked in lower paying jobs than hearing employees. There was also shown to be a difference in salaries between deaf and hearing workers, even in the professional occupations. Deaf women held positions at the low end of the salary range, mainly because the deaf women held the low paying clerical jobs. The study was not that extensive, in that it left out all of the deaf people with college degrees and only examined deaf high school graduates; because of this, the study did not represent the entire deaf population as a whole.
Resource: MacLeod-Gallinger. (1992). The Career Status of Deaf Women- A Comparative Look. American Annals of the Deaf, 137(4), 315-325. Retrieved from: American Annals of the Deaf.
Posted By:

Brianna Reynolds

April 9, 2009




Deaf Women’s Perceived Responsibility in the Workplace



          This study included 10 Deaf women who viewed themselves as a members of the Deaf community and not as disabled people. Throughout the interviews, the women discussed a feeling of responsibility to work twice as hard or to prove themselves due to their deafness. Many shared experiences when their bosses or co-workers would help to accommodate them in the workplace. Some women asked their bosses and managers for technologies such as a TTY or even an interpreter and were denied. Most of the bosses felt that it was up to the women to get whatever “help” she needed.


          The women discussed the difficulty in obtaining a job as well as the difficulty to sustain their employment. The women also expressed a lack of social connection to their co-workers because the fellow employees did not understand what it means to be Deaf nor did they want to learn.






Posted By: Elizabeth Musgrave

November 10, 2008





An Opprotuniy to Excell in the Justice System for BOTH Deaf/HOH men and WOMEN!



          There have been many obstacles preventing Deaf men and women from entering the justice system for years. Many of the reasons attached to this epidemic are due to educational outlets available to the Deaf community as well as adequate role models and ofcourse  the stigma placed on Deaf people as a whole. The idea that Deaf people are lazy, not intelligent and or able to complete such complex tasks such as defending/ representing someone in a court room. This site provides support, information and testimonials of real life Deaf lawyers, solicitors and barristers as well as a blog page . Deaf lawyers U.K is growing and updating its page and will be providing more sources and outlets for its viewers in the coming months. The idea that finally Deaf women have a place to turn if  they so choose to go down the judicial path they have a resource available to them for inspiration and guidence.


Reference: DeafLawyersU.K.(n.d.)Retrieved November 10,2008 from, http://www.deaflawyers.org.uk/


Writen by : Abigail Cantu





Differences between Deaf Men and Women with Employment


             In a study of 4,917 deaf high school graduates conducted by MacLeod-Gallihger many interesting facts were discovered. He found that there is a higher rate of unemployment appeared for deaf women than for deaf men. This was exaggerated when he added in adults without a college education. The employment level of the deaf women is frequently lower, they worked in lower paying occupations than their hearing peers. In the overall outlook socioeconomic status there was no significant difference between deaf women and deaf men that were examined. Although MacLeod-Gallihger did this extensive study, the study only included high school graduates, so the results did not represent the total deaf population. In another study done by Sela and Weisel they studied Israeli's deaf population and their work characteristics. They found a higher rate of employment among deaf men than deaf women.


Reference: Weisel, A, & Cinamon, R (2005). Hearing, Deaf, and Hard-of-Hearing Israeli Adolescents' Evaluations of Deaf Men and Deaf Women's Occupational Competence. Retrieved November 11, 2008, from http://services.oxfordjournals.org.


Posted by: Keegan Marquis

November 11, 2008



 Ashley Fiolek

Professional Motorcycle Racer


Deaf women face many obstacles when they choose careers. Not only do they have to overcome those prejudiced towards working women, but they must fight the stereotype that D/deaf people are "disabled".  It is particularly hard for deaf women such as Ashley Fiolek who whoose to enter careers dominated by hearing men. Ashley Fiolek is a deaf 17 year old girl from St. Augustine, Florida. She began competing this summer in motocross racing at the Women's Moto X Racing in the X Games. She won the first three races of this season, establishing her place as the top rider of the American Motocross Association/Women's Motocross Association tour.


Her parents bought her first motorcycle when she was three years old, but she was not allowed to ride it until she was 7 years old.  She began racing motorcycles against boys that same year. She placed 4th out of the 12 boys she competed against in her first race ever. She is currently working on her goal of overcoming the gender barrier to become the first woman ever to ride in a men's professional motocross race.  Her times are only 1.5 seconds above the qualifying time for the men's races.


Ashley Fiolek was born deaf. She communicates by motuhing words and signing. Her father attends every event for her, acting as an interpreter.  She must overcome many obstacles in her career. She cannot hear her opponents when they are behind her, so she must select a path and continue with it.  She cannot cut across the track because she cannot hear the other competitors to find out where they are.  She also had problems learning how to shift gears. She cannot hear the engine, so she depends on the vibrations in the motorcycle to know when to shift.



Photo courtesy of prettytough.com

Ruibal, Sal Fiolek, 17 Roars to Top of Women's Motocross Championship Series; Floridian Could be First to Race Pro Men.  (2008, June 11). USA Today, p. Sports 10c.


(2008, August 2). Ashley Fiolek. Retrieved November 11, 2008, from Chicago Tribune Web site: http://www.chicagotribune.com/sports/chi-ashley-fiolek-080802-ht,0,5322227.story?page=1


Posted By:

Jaclyn Reep

November 11, 2008


Cristina Hooper

April 15, 2009 


 Ashley Fiolek

Professional Motorcycle Racer


Deaf women face many obstacles when they choose careers. Not only do they have to overcome those prejudiced towards working women, but they must fight the stereotype that D/deaf people are "disabled".  It is particularly hard for deaf women such as Ashley Fiolek who whoose to enter careers dominated by hearing men. Ashley Fiolek is a deaf 17 year old girl from St. Augustine, Florida. She began competing this summer in motocross racing at the Women's Moto X Racing in the X Games. She won the first three races of this season, establishing her place as the top rider of the American Motocross Association/Women's Motocross Association tour.


Her parents bought her first motorcycle when she was three years old, but she was not allowed to ride it until she was 7 years old.  She began racing motorcycles against boys that same year. She placed 4th out of the 12 boys she competed against in her first race ever. She is currently working on her goal of overcoming the gender barrier to become the first woman ever to ride in a men's professional motocross race.  Her times are only 1.5 seconds above the qualifying time for the men's races.


Ashley Fiolek was born deaf. She communicates by motuhing words and signing. Her father attends every event for her, acting as an interpreter.  She must overcome many obstacles in her career. She cannot hear her opponents when they are behind her, so she must select a path and continue with it.  She cannot cut across the track because she cannot hear the other competitors to find out where they are.  She also had problems learning how to shift gears. She cannot hear the engine, so she depends on the vibrations in the motorcycle to know when to shift.






Ruibal, Sal Fiolek, 17 Roars to Top of Women's Motocross Championship Series; Floridian Could be First to Race Pro Men.  (2008, June 11). USA Today, p. Sports 10c.



(2008, August 2). Ashley Fiolek. Retrieved November 11, 2008, from Chicago Tribune Web site: http://www.chicagotribune.com/sports/chi-ashley-fiolek-080802-ht,0,5322227.story?page=1



Posted by: Jaclyn Reep

November 11, 2008






 Computer Technologies Program


In Berkley they are trying to expand the career and economic potential for women with disabilities. They were trying to expand the career potential for women with disabilities.  They wanted to raise the number of women in the Computer Technologies training program from 18% to 36%.  There were 10 participants in the focus group that looked at ways to recruit women.  The dropout rate of women in the program was less than the men's.  Deaf students represented less than 10% of the CTP graduates, but 40% of the Deaf students were women.  Deaf women want to become programmers.  The Deaf community also offers support to women in technical fields. 




Fitzgerald, M. (2000). Recruiting Women & Girls to Technology. The Computer Technologies Program.  Retrieved November 11, 2008 from http://www.techup.org/tech/te_ctp.html


Posted by: Angela Golden

November 11, 2008






Between Worlds






Najarian, Cheryl G. (2006). “Between Worlds” Deaf Women, Work, and Intersections of Gender and Ability. New York City, NY: Routledge.



Posted by: Danielle Veitenheimer

November 12, 2008




The Career Status of a Deaf Woman:

A Comparative Look


Photo Courtesy of http://home.comcast.net/~johnny_midknight/references.html

In a world full of job opportunities, it seems as though Deaf women are getting the brunt end of the deal. A study done from 1982-1989 at a deaf high school of 4,900 students showed the discrepancies in labor, occupations, and earnings between deaf men and women. A research was conducted and concluded that the degrees earned, labor force activities, jobs held, and socioeconomic status were contributed to this problem.


There have been many attempts to raise awareness of this problem to the deaf community, but despite these efforts deaf women still continue to go into a small range of careers. These careers usually end up being the "typical female job." When deaf women receive lower than a Bachelor's degree they are less likely to receive the same job a deaf male or hearing person would receive with the same educational background. Businesses and companies are demanding higher education and more skills for these jobs as the industry grows making it even more difficult for deaf women to find jobs appropriate for their level of education. 


Macleod-Gallinger J.E. (1992). "The Career Status of a Deaf Woman: A Comparative Look" Rochester, New York. Received from:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1471588

Posted By:

Macy Reeve

November 12, 2008

Gabriela Segundo

April 9, 2009














 Relative Earnings of Deaf and Hard-of-hearing Individuals


 The article compares earnings of male and female deaf or hard-of hearing college graduates to those of the hearing population who have the same levels of education. Many researchers compare the salary within the group deaf and hard of hearing instead of comparing it with the general population.However, the researchers were able to compare the salary earnings of college graduates who are deaf or hard of hearing to those of the general population. The data shows that the hearing women tend to earn more money than the deaf/hard of hearing women. Not only that but they have the same level of education which means that their careers are closely related. Median salary of the deaf women or hard of hearing was $25,178 and the hearing women medium salary was between $21,290 and $27,415 with an associated degree. The researchers believe that the deaf women and hard of hearing earn less than the hearing women because many of the deaf or hard of hearing women don’t continue with their education.





Jones, D.D. (2004). Relative Earnings of Deaf and Hard-of-hearing Individuals. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 9 (4), 459-461.



Posted BY: Esther Fuentes

November 12, 2008




 Deaf Women in Science and Engineering


Deaf Women in Science and Engineering is an organization for deaf women in the field of science and engineering. Women, especially deaf women, in these fields are very rare. Most deaf women do not believe that they can be in these fields due to their disability. The main goal of this organization is to provide resourced in this field to deaf women and children and to encourage deaf women to be in this field. They educate deaf women on the issues faced with being a "double minority" pertaining to career choices.


One deaf women engineer named Cinda talks about the obstacles that she faced in her field.


* had to wrestle control of interpreter purchasing from the financial officer:

~improved coverage

~no longer had to justify need for interpreter


*difficulty with interpreting agency on getting the same interpreter

~did not have time to train new interpreters




Deaf Women in Science and Engineering. (2005). Retrieved November 10, 2008 from http://www.deafwise.org/.


Posted By: Samaria Epps

November 13, 2008




 Science and Engineering



DWSE (Deaf Women in Science and Engineering) is seeing more women break into the usually man dominated career of science. The man to woman ratio in science is still quite large, but DWSE organization is encouraging women in the college setting to take up technical degrees. NTID/RIT offers seminars to deaf girls that are looking into choosing careers. Ex-alumni from NTID show the girls who are thinking about careers in the science field that NTID has a great support program.  Also, the girls get to see women as an example and get to know that by going into that field they will be doing what a lot of women haven’t done. Being deaf isn’t a reason not to go into the science field. Anything is possible with support from university programs like at NTID and DWSE as an example and motivational organization. Namrita Owens, is a founder of a support program DWSE as global organization, she is an electrical engineer at NASA and is a great role model.




Johncox, Kathy A. (2005). Women in Science and Engineering: A New Breed.  Focus 6-7


Rochester, New York.  Retrieved November 9, 2008, from http://www.deafwise.or/FOCUSnewsbreed.pdf

Posted by: Morayma Guerrero


November 13, 2008







Your Hearing Aid Can Increase Your Salary



A Better Hearing Institute research article titled, “The Impact of Untreated Hearing Loss on Household Income” by Sergei Kochkin, Ph.D, gives information on the “treated” and “untreated” hearing loss and the income a person brings into their homes and the effect it has on the Federal income taxes.  This research was conducted in late 2004 and early 2005 by short surveys that were sent out and gathered from households defined by the U.S. Bureau of Census.  Based on the questions and responses 16,000 people with hearing loss were identified (did not include children and people that were not considered the head of the household).  The study used different aspects of a household and Tables and graphs to show the concluded results.  On one of the tables it showed how a individual with a server hearing loss could earn $12,000 less per year that that of a mild hearing loss.  This study shows a glimpse into how the deaf can suffer financial losses because of underemployment because employers are worried about the mistakes being made on the job, unemployment is a higher possibility and the quality of life isn’t high as that of those with a hearing ability.


Posted By: MMathew

November 13, 2008



The Impact of Untreated Hearing Loss on Household Income. (August 2005). Better Hearing Institute.  Retrieved November 13, 2008, from http://www.betterhearing.org/pdfs/MarkeTrak7_ImpactUntreatedHLIncome.pdf


 Deaf Women in Sports


Last month there was a conference organized by the Swedish Deaf Sport Federation in order to discuss equality of deaf women in sports. While the conference concluded that deaf sports are still dominated by men it is important to note that many deaf women are finding careers in deaf spots. In fact the International Committee of Sports for the Deaf (ICSD) elected its first female president, Donalda Ammons, in 2005. Also in the 2005 Summer Deaflympics nearly half of the competing athletes were women. The ICSD is opening doors for deaf women in other fields as well. They employ deaf female lawyers, researchers, and doctors to help their organization run successfully. These women are competing with the men on the field as well as in the office.



Seminar "No Women No Deaf Sport?". (November 2008). International Commitee of Sports for the Deaf. Retrieved November 13, 2008 from www.deaflympics.com/news/enews/index.asp?ID=1129


Posted by: Courtney Garrett

November 13, 2008


















“Between Worlds” is a book that examines the relationship between deaf women and their career life. The study, completed by Cheryl G. Najarian, includes ten college educated women ranging from the ages of 34 to 63, who share many common goals. Najarian’s study reveals a pattern following the stereotype that many Deaf women are often pressured into careers that are related to the deaf community, such as educators of the deaf or interpreters. The women who fall into these careers are mostly native ASL speakers, but they might also have oral skills from being raised by hearing parents. Many Deaf women also fall into the common stereotype of women needing to be the caretaker for the family so they choose to work from home or to be homemakers. Deaf women who are in professions not related to the deaf community are often victims of discrimination and need to have oral skills in order to communicate. We often forget how challenging it can be for a Deaf woman to find a career in the hearing world with the presence of stereotypes and discriminations against them not only because they are female, but also because they are deaf. One woman from the study, Heather, worked in the hearing world because she could handle having very little social interaction with her colleagues. The feelings of isolation from working in these types of settings can be very overwhelming for most Deaf women.

Deaf women tend to be discriminated against in the workplace due to their disability. According to a study, reported on by Braddock and Bachelder (1994), “employers responded differently to employees, depending on the type of disability. Persons with physical disabilities were viewed more favorably than those with mental, emotional, or communication disabilities on almost every aspect of recruitment, selection, acceptance, and performance expectation” (Braddock & Bachelder, 1994). Deaf women, due to their “communication disabilities,” tend to be discriminated against, and in many different aspects of their jobs. In another study, that was reported on by Braddock and Bachelder (1994) as well, indicated that certain disabilities negatively affected earnings. In this case, not only are deaf women discriminated against in regards to job positions, but they are also discriminated against in regards to wages. According to Braddock and Bachelder (1994), deaf women “earned lower salaries than males who were deaf, and had much lower salaries than similarly employed hearing persons” (Braddock and Bachelder, 1994). In addition to workplace discrimination and lower wages, deaf women tend to be underemployed and have blue collar jobs. According to Roulstone and Barnes (2005), research has indicated that “deaf workers,” in this case, deaf women, are “concentrated in blue-collar occupations, jobs characterized by low job security and little opportunity for advancement beyond entry level” (Roulstone & Barnes, 2005). In addition, Roulstone and Barnes (2005) found that “deaf women were much more disadvantaged than men, typically choosing less skilled employment” (Roulstone & Barnes, 2005). In addition, they were frequently underemployed, and chose jobs that were below their skill level. According to Pray (2003), there are reportedly “higher rates of unemployment and underemployment among deaf and hard of hearing people compared with the hearing population” (Finch, Moxley, & Pray, 2003). In sum, deaf women are at a disadvantage in regards to employment, and their disability tends to handicap their career advancement.


Unlimit Your Dreams:

Deaf Women Doctors


Dr.Judith Ann Pachciarz is known as one of the first deaf person in history, male or female, to earn both a Ph.D and M.D. ; and the first profoundly deaf women phyisian. She has been qouted saying " This means that there must have been othes mote intelligent and more qualified who have been denied the opportunity to be who they wanted to be." But by the support and encouragement of mentors, which on of the factors involved, her dream of becoming a scienist and phsyciain were at hand. This women sets a perfect example of how deaf individuals can soar above all expectations. The Deaf community does not have to limit itself to teaching or homemaking but more opporunities. A great career in the medical profession is also very much possible. Just like everyone else, all it takes is dedication and courage to venture the unknown. To learn more about Dr. Pachciarz go to

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/changingthefaceofmedicine/physicians/biography_244.html and allow yourself to be inspired.









Retrieved April 1,2009



Posted By:

DeAnna Morris

April 8, 2009

Employment for the Deaf

and Hard-of-Hearing


Both state and federal laws make it illegal for employers (with 15 or more employees) to discriminate in

the various aspects of employment including  hiring, promotion, job assignments, wrongful termination, compensation and different forms of harassment.These laws are stated in the Americans with Disabilities

Act of 1990. Specifically, Title I of the ADA requires that companies take reasonable steps to accomodate limitations of their employees. Reasonable accomodations refer to modifications or adjustments to a particular job or work environment that enables a quailified person to perform the work. Examples  for deaf and hard-of hearing applicants would be telecommunication devices for the deaf (TTYs or TDDs), instant messaging software, amplified telephones, visual alarms and qualified sign language interpreters. The ADA also requires that deaf employees or applicants have the tools that they need to communicate effectively in work related activities.

Resources: U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, Disability Rights Section (www.ada.gov/cguide.htm)  
Posted by:

Kellie Kirkpatrick

April 15, 2009

Deaf Lawyers UK  
This is a great opportunity for deaf women who are looking to pursue law and are looking for information about their future careers. It provides information for lawyers, solicitors, barristers, and law students in the UK. The group has a Deaf Blawg that you can communicate through or discussion certain issues about. The blawg has recently been redone and is up-to-date with fresh information about the group. You can become a member of the group by applying and following the recommendations. It shares information about all the members of the group by giving biographes of the members and there past careers. This group is pushing for Deaf individuals to participate and become active contributors to their careers pertaining law. If you are a Deaf women in the UK looking for advice in the world of law, this is a great jump start to your career.
Resources: Deaf Lawyers UK. (2004-2008) Retrieved on April 15, 2009. Website: www.deaflawyers.org.uk/
Posted By: Hayley Siebman. April 15, 2009.
Deaf Women in Sports:  
While the Swedish Deaf Sport Federation held conferences declaring that most deaf sports are overwhelmed by males, there was a big debate on the equality of women in all sports. A key bit of information is the  fact that many career positions are slowly opening up more and more for deaf women. In the 2005 Deaflympics it is important to note that more women were competing than men. More deaf women get higher positions within deaf sports than anything else. The first executive director ever hired was a deaf woman in 2005. Her name was Tiffany Ganfors. As time moves on more and more deaf women are becoming increasingly more noticed and eligible for positions in the deaf sport world.
Resources: Seminar No Women, No Deaf Sport? Deaf Women in sports. (2006) Retrieved April, 2009. Website; http://www.deaflympics.com/News/enews/backissues.asp?ID=1129.
Posted By:

Trina Wylie

April 15, 2009.



Look Out, Here We Come



There are particular vocational fields that are harder for women to persue than others, science and engineering are a few of those areas. Since before the fourth century, women have been making headway in the scientific fields, yet they only make up 22 percent of that population. Back in the day, there were only male doctors, now there are many women doctors who sometimes are able to better serve their clients simply because they are a woman. To add to the stress of being a woman in a 'male' world, deaf women are faced with even more challenges.


There are a growing number of deaf and hard of hearing women at the RIT/NTID school of science and engineering. They are currently involved in teaching or learning in those capacities and are in the vanguard of a new generation of women in science. Though they seem to be challenged twice as much, the deaf and hard of hearing women in those fields are creating a breed of their own.



Johncox, K. Women inScience and Engineering: A New Breed Retrieved April 15, 2009, from Web site: http://www.geocities.com/dwse2001/


 Posted By: 

Erin Rice

April 15, 2009



Deaf Women as Advocates


Image by: profile.ak.facebook.com/object3/1194/8/n65580...




Abused Deaf Woman's Advocacy Services (ADWAS) stems from a Deaf woman's abusive marriage that caused her death. ADWAS was already running a support group for deaf domestic violence at the time of the death. After the death ADWAS realized cultural services were needed for for Deaf and Deaf/Blind victims of sexual assault and domestic violence because hearing organizations couldn't help them because of language barriers. Female deaf community leaders and mothers of Deaf children were called to discuss how they could support victims. Thus began a deaf run organization. These women choose careers in being advocates. ADWAS believes in empowerment for victims/survivors to see their own people in control of ADWAS. Deaf and Deaf/Blind of ADWAS can be successful because they run the agency. The primary job of the advocates is to provide crisis intervention services which may mean meeting rape victim or domestic violence at the hospital and supporting her through the initial medical exam, then explaining her options for reporting to the police and for domestic victim's new housing options. 

Smith, Marilyn J.  (2003). Supporting Deaf Women in Seattle: Abused Deaf    Women's Advocacy Services. Impact. Retrieved  on April 15, 2009 from


Posted by:

Morayma Guerero

April 16, 2009




                                                                         Annie Jump Cannon




                                 Annie Jump Cannon was born December 11, 1863. S in Delaware. When Ms. Cannon was a child she had a cold that caused her to become deaf. Ms. Cannon read people's lips. When she got older she studies physics in college. Then she started working at the Harvard Observatory getting paid 50 cents an hour. Her job was to take care of all the pictures of stars but instead she was studying them herself! She reported what she discovered in a book, Catalogue of the Spectra of 1122 Stars. Most of her awards came from places and people outside of where she worked. Harvard didn't want to give her awards because she was a woman and deaf. She finally got an award from Harvard at the end of her career. It was the William Cranch Bond Astronomer Award. She died three years later on April 13, 1941.          


  References : Deaf Scientist Corner. Retrieved April 16, 2009, from TWU Web site: http://www.twu.edu/dsc/jump_cannonI.htm     


 Posted by: Ashley Mathews

April 16,2009


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